Excavations

There are countless, unearthed artifacts from the geographic region encompassed by Raising Up Pharaoh. Throughout the world, these fill museums, the drawing rooms of private collectors, the shops of antiquities dealers, and in the hands of some hawking souvenirs in open markets. Most are still in the ground. Remarkably, the ones in the ground are the most valuable, for we know from where and, probably with modern technology, when the artifacts have come.

This key concept to understanding an artifact and its place in history is to know its provenance. Where was it unearthed? To what period was that place dated? Any artifact above the ground without an irrefutable record of its provenance is of no more value than what you see. It might date to the Iron, Bronze, Chalcolithic, or Neolithic Age, but you don’t know. It might be an artful copy from a later age, or a cunning modern counterfeit.

For this reason, professionally managed excavations are essential to our understanding of the material culture at a specific place and point-in-time. More recently trained excavators are more meticulous, benefitting from the hard lessons of spoiled provenance that were learned from earlier excavations, now employing techniques developed to avoid the failures of prior techniques.

Below are links to excavations which have proved or are proving pivotal to our understanding of how man progressed (and regressed) over the ten millennia of the Holocene. The sites are ordered from the deepest antiquity (of their earliest settlement) down to the most recent. The dating is done in years before our time, e.g. B.P., Before Present. I chose the introductory sources based upon what will give you the quickest insight. Start from there and Google it further. If the site is related to a site in Raising Up Pharaoh, the book name is in italics.

 

12,000 B.P. Jericho.

 

12,000 B.P. Gobekli Tepe.

 

9,000 B.P. Catal Huyuk.

 

9,000 B.P. Ain Ghazal.

 

9,000 B.P. Susa.

 

9,000 B.P. Mehrgarh, Indus Valley

8,000 B.P. Choga Mami.

 

8,000 B.P. Ubaid civilization, first layer, southernmost.

 

8,000 B.P. Ugarit.

 

 7,500 B.P. Timna Valley Copper Mines. 

 

7,500 B.P. Sumer. Reilend civilization, second layer, expanding upriver.

 

6,800 B.P. Ur.

 

6,000 B.P. Uruk.

 

6,000 B.P. Mari.

 

6,000 B.P. Ashkelon.

 

6,000 B.P. Naqada & Hierakonpolis.

 

6,000 B.P. Abydos.

 

6,000 B.P. Hamoukar.

 

6,000 B.P. Maadi.

 

5,500 B.P. En Gedi.

 

5,000 B.P. Eilat & Ezion-Geber.

 

5,000 B.P. Emar.

 

5,000 B.P. Ebla.

 

5,000 B.P. Alalakh.

 

5,000 B.P. Tuttul.

 

5,000 B.P.  Harappan civilization.

 

5,000 B.P. Mohenjo-daro.

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